A veterinarian examining a dog for signs of testicular cancer

Testicular Cancer in Dogs

Discover essential information about testicular cancer in dogs, including its symptoms, diagnosis, treatment options, and ways to prevent it. Learn how to support your pet's health and well-being.

Table of Contents

Testicular cancer is a significant health concern that can affect dogs, particularly those that are not neutered. As a pet owner, understanding the symptoms, risk factors, and treatment options for this condition is essential for ensuring your dog’s health and well-being. This article will delve into the various aspects of testicular cancer in dogs, including its types, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention strategies.

Types of Testicular Cancer in Dogs

Testicular cancer in dogs can manifest in several forms, with the most common types being Sertoli cell tumors, seminomas, and interstitial (Leydig) cell tumors. Each type has its characteristics and implications for the affected dog’s health.

  1. Sertoli Cell Tumors: These tumors arise from the Sertoli cells, which support and nourish the developing sperm cells within the testes. Sertoli cell tumors can produce estrogen, leading to feminization syndrome or estrogen toxicity in some cases. This condition may result in symptoms such as enlarged mammary glands, loss of libido, and changes in coat texture.
  2. Seminomas: Originating from the sperm-producing cells, seminomas are typically slow-growing and less likely to spread to other parts of the body. However, they can still cause discomfort and swelling in the affected testicle.
  3. Interstitial (Leydig) Cell Tumors: These tumors develop from the testosterone-producing cells in the testes. Although they are generally benign and rarely metastasize, they can lead to an increase in testosterone, which might not result in noticeable symptoms in the dog.

Symptoms of Testicular Cancer in Dogs

The symptoms of testicular cancer in dogs can vary depending on the type of tumor and its stage. Common signs include:

  • Enlargement or swelling of one or both testicles
  • A lump or mass in the scrotum
  • Abdominal discomfort or swelling if the cancer has spread
  • Feminization syndrome, including changes in coat texture and mammary gland enlargement, in the case of estrogen-producing tumors
  • General signs of illness, such as lethargy, loss of appetite, and weight loss

It is crucial for pet owners to regularly check their dogs for any unusual lumps or changes in their testicles, especially if the dog is intact (not neutered).

Symptoms of Testicular Cancer in Dogs

Diagnosis and Treatment

Diagnosing testicular cancer in dogs typically involves a combination of physical examinations, blood tests, ultrasounds, and biopsies. Veterinarians may also perform hormonal assays to check for elevated levels of hormones associated with certain types of tumors.

Treatment options depend on the type and stage of the cancer. The most common and effective treatment is surgical removal of the affected testicles (orchiectomy). This procedure not only removes the tumor but also reduces the risk of metastasis and eliminates the source of hormone production associated with some tumors. In cases where the cancer has spread, additional treatments such as chemotherapy or radiation therapy may be necessary.

Prevention and Management

The most effective way to prevent testicular cancer in dogs is through neutering (castration), which involves the surgical removal of the testicles. Neutering at an early age significantly reduces the risk of developing testicular cancer and offers other health and behavioral benefits.

For dogs diagnosed with testicular cancer, post-treatment care is crucial. Regular follow-up visits with the veterinarian are necessary to monitor for any signs of recurrence or metastasis. Additionally, maintaining a healthy lifestyle with proper nutrition and regular exercise can support your dog’s overall well-being and recovery.


Testicular cancer in dogs is a condition that warrants attention from pet owners and veterinarians alike. By being aware of the symptoms and risk factors, ensuring timely diagnosis, and following through with appropriate treatment and prevention strategies, pet owners can significantly improve their dogs’ health outcomes. Neutering remains the most effective preventive measure against testicular cancer, highlighting its importance as part of responsible pet ownership. With the right care and attention, dogs diagnosed with testicular cancer can continue to lead happy, fulfilling lives.

This comprehensive overview of testicular cancer in dogs underscores the importance of vigilance, early detection, and proactive healthcare practices for pet owners. By staying informed and working closely with veterinary professionals, you can play a crucial role in safeguarding your furry friend’s health and ensuring they receive the care and support they need throughout their lives.

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